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Contaminated water (the most common way for the parasite to be transmitted):
- Accidentally swallowing water in contaminated recreational water such as lakes, streams, hot tubs, swimming pools, or water parks
- Drinking water or ice that is contaminated
- Contact with contaminated diapers or clothing
- Contact with contaminated animal feces by touching animals, cleaning cages, or visiting barns or petting zoos
- Sexual activity that includes contact with contaminated feces
- Eating food grown in, or contaminated by, infected soil
- Drinking contaminated, unpasteurized milk, dairy products, or juice
- Eating food that was handled by someone who is infected or food that was washed in contaminated water
- Young children, especially if they are in day care
- Day care workers or those who work in a group setting
- People whose immune system is weakened by cancer, AIDS, or an organ transplant
- People who engage in oral-anal sex
- Backpackers, hikers, and campers who may come into contact with contaminated water sources
- Watery diarrhea
- Stomach cramps
- Upset stomach, vomiting
- Slight fever
- Weight loss
- IV fluids
- Antidiarrheal drugs
- Nitazoxanide—this drug may not work if the immune system is weak
Wash your hands often, especially:
- After using the toilet
- After changing a diaper
- Before handling or eating food
- After contact with animals or soil
- After contact with infected people
- Drink safe water. Boil water if you are unsure if it’s safe.
- Avoid swallowing water when swimming in recreational water.
- Eat safe food. Wash vegetables that will be eaten raw.
- Drink only pasteurized milk and juice.
- Use precautions during sexual activity.
- Washing your hands frequently.
- Avoiding swimming in recreational waters.
- Taking precautions during sexual activity.
- Reviewer: James Cornell, MD
- Review Date: 06/2016
- Update Date: 06/20/2013